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Protecting Sataya Reef dolphins - Proposition de plan de protection des dauphins du lagon de Sataya


Voici le rapport qui a été envoyé aux autorités égyptiennes en charge du parc maritime qui contient le lagon de Sataya et ses dauphins sauvages. Il a aussi été envoyé à l'ONG HEPCA qui oeuvre à la protection de la mer rouge en local et soutient le gouvernement en ce sens.

Ce rapport propose:
  • Une étude démontrant la plus grande valeur économique d'un tourisme plus authentique et respectueux des dauphins et de l'écosystème. 
  • Un bref état des lieux du profil des sites de nage avec les dauphins sauvages à travers le monde
  • Une solution concrète, simple, peu couteuse et efficace de la manière dont le tourisme autour des dauphins du lagon de Sataya pourrait être organisé pour préserver le lagon et ses dauphins.

Résumé du plan de protection de Sataya proposé (en Français):
(english version and full report in english below ) :

1. Interdire l'entrée du lagon à toutes les embarcations motorisées  - Autoriser uniquement les canoes-kayaks et les humains (à la nage ou en plongée)

Une tactique simple mais extrêmement efficace pour mettre fin à toutes les approches et mises à l'eau non respectueuses des dauphins de la part des bateaux et zodiacs. L'un des 2 problèmes majeurs à l'heure actuelle. Cela permet en même temps de résoudre tous les problèmes de pollution (gasoil/essence/huiles de moteur - rejets eaux usées) et de pollution sonore dans le lagon.
Pour ce faire, les bouées d'ancrage existantes dans les zones protégées à l'extérieur du lagon seront utilisées. Quant aux visiteurs entrant dans le lagon, ils devront obligatoirement avoir un gilet de sauvetage par personne (qu'ils soit porté ou attaché au canoë) et un chapeau. De l'eau sera aussi conseillé. Il y aura au minimum un guide en canoë pour 10 visiteurs en canoë entrant dans le lagon (même proportion d'accompagnement qu'actuellement sur les zodiacs). Ceux-ci superviseront les nages pour la sécurité des visiteurs de leur canoë (comme ils le font aujourd'hui du zodiac). Il auront un Talky-Walky par sécurité pour pouvoir appeler un bateau en cas d'urgence. Un guide supplémentaire pourra être présent si nécessaire aussi accompagner et guider dans l'eau les nages dauphins ou les randonnées palmées (comme c'est aussi le cas actuellement).

2. Limiter le nombre de visiteurs à Sataya et dans le lagon  

- Par une meilleure répartition du tourisme (autoriser les bateaux de plongée à ne venir à Sataya qu'en dehors de la présence des bateaux de jours. Cela permet en plus un partage possible des ancrages).
- Mais aussi en limitant le nombre de bateaux par type de tourisme autorisé à venir sur site en même temps:
  •  4 bateaux de croisières dauphins max à la fois, soit par semaine, 
  •  1 seul bateau de plongée à la fois mais 2 créneaux  par jour: soit pour l'après-midi et la nuit, soit du levé du jour jusqu'à 10h30 l'arrivée des bateaux de jour. Cela permet ainsi à 14 bateaux de plongée au total de venir faire une escale à Sataya par semaine. (ou plus s'il y a moins de 4 croisières dauphins selon les semaines).
Les autorités auront un planning 'croisière plongée' et 'croisières dauphins' et affecteront les places et créneaux aux opérateurs au fil des demandes de réservations qu'ils reçoivent selon les disponibilités.
  •  Pour les bateaux de jours, mieux vaut ne pas limiter les bateaux mais directement le nombre de visiteurs à 100 par jour via le nombre de tickets d'entrée au parc maritime / Sataya disponible à la vente chaque jour (procédé déjà utilisé sur le site des dauphins de Samadhi).

3. Limiter aussi le nombre de visiteurs auprès des dauphins:
  • D'une part via une meilleure répartition des visiteurs autorisés à approcher les dauphins en créant 2 plages horaires (visiteurs en excursion à la journée de 10h30 à 13H et ceux des croisières dauphins et croisière plongée avant 10h30 et après 15H). Ainsi grâce aux limitations des bateaux ou visiteurs définis juste au dessus il n'y aura donc que 100 visiteurs max sur chacune des 2 plages horaires (soit un nombre à peu prés égal au nombre maximum de dauphins potentiellement présent dans le lagon). Vous noterez aussi qu'en procédant ainsi,  comme aucun humain n'est autorisé à nager avec les dauphins entre 13h et 15H, cela créé en sus une plage de tranquillité quotidienne pour les dauphins. Elle correspond à l'heure à partir de laquelle ils commencent souvent à se reposer ou à dormir. Il pourrait être ajouté une interdiction de nager avec les dauphins le mercredi pour leur offrir en plus une journée complète de repos par semaine. Ces jours là, les sorties et approches d'observation des dauphins en canoës resterait possible en gardant une distance de 30 mètres. 
  • Puis grâce à une règle simple: dans un rayon de 30 mètres autour des dauphins, il ne doit pas y avoir plus d'humains que de dauphins. Les guides accompagnant les visiteurs devront s'organiser entre eux et faire des rotations de leur groupes respectifs afin de respecter cette règle (leur talky-walky servira aussi à cela). Certains iront découvrir des tombants ou des patates de corail puis après aux dauphins, d'autres feront l'inverse etc. Il y a assez de merveilles à voir dans le lagon pour que cela soit fluide et agréable et non vécu par les visiteurs comme de "l'attente". Procéder ainsi permettra de restaurer l'authenticité et l'intimité des rencontres avec les dauphins pour les visiteurs, soit donc de restaurer son aspect qualitatif, en plus de la rendre respectueuse.
    A l'heure actuelle, la sur-proportion d'humains nageant avec les dauphins représente le second problème majeur pour les dauphins. C'est aussi une source de désagrément important pour les visiteurs qui se heurtent sans cesse les uns aux autres ou jouent des coudes dans l'eau pour tenter de voir ou d'aller au plus prés des dauphins.  
  • En complétant enfin par quelques règles comportementales basiques envers les dauphins: la mise à l'eau des passagers des canoës doit se faire à 10 mètres des dauphins (jamais à moins et encore moins au dessus d'eux), approche à la nage lente et sans bruit, interdit de toucher les animaux ou de les nourrir. Interdit de nager à plein vitesse vers ou derrière les dauphins (pourchasse). Interdit de faire de l'apnée sur un bébé et sa mère etc.

4. Quelques règles supplémentaires de protection du lagon et de ses alentours:

Sur tous les alentours du lagon, les zodiacs doivent être au ralenti et éviter d'être bruyant. Jeter des poubelles à l'eau est interdit. Nettoyer les extérieur des navires ou les zodiacs est interdit. Toutes les activités divertissantes motorisées de type ski nautique ou bouées tirées etc. sont interdites.
Toute pêche est interdite (sauf peut-être quelques prise précises uniquement par une pêche à la ligne et dans certaines zones peuvent être autorisées aux équipages si nécessaire et acceptable selon les stocks de poisson - à définir). Utiliser de la crème solaire biodégradable spéciale qui n'abime pas le corail et/ou T-shirt ou combinaison en lycra anti-UV. 

Avec cette organisation et ces règles simples et faciles à mettre en place, le lagon de Sataya pourra retrouver sa sérénité et sa beauté sauvage. Il sera un sanctuaire protégé offrant des rencontres respectueuses, intimes et authentiques aux visiteurs tout en préservant l'écosystème et les dauphins.





Ensuring sustainability of both
Spinner dolphins and dolphin swim tourism
at Sha’ab Sataya, Red Sea, Egypt

Sha’ab Sataya dolphins Tourism Management Plan
(Extract from the full report)

Author: Valérie VALTON – DOLPHINESSE
Ethology and Human-Animal mediation (University Paris Descartes)
November 2018



 




Content :




1.    Introduction


Spinner dolphins are known to use different shallow reefs and lagoons as resting habitats away from deep sea predators to rest, sleep, reproduce and nurture their young (Norris and Dohl 1980; Wells and Norris 1994; Wursig et al. 1994). Endangering their sleep and/or creating too much environmental and behavioural disruption and stress have a critical negative impact on their health. It can also deter them from continuing to use such resting sites and therefore endanger their mid or long term survival (Bejder et al., 2006; Bejder et al., In press).

Given the tourism boom over the last 10 years at Sha’ab Sataya, the pod of roughly 100 spinner dolphins visiting daily this lagoon now face a huge touristic pressure. For tourists, it has reached a point where swimmers are often seen bumping into one another or pushing each other when trying to swim with dolphins among the crowd, which becomes a poor experience. As for dolphins, they can often be observed exhibiting clear signs of discomfort. They also seem to be absent from the lagoon more and more often. There is thus a real risk that the dolphins might eventually abandon the area which would impact their health and survival. This would in turn endanger the dolphin associated local touristic business.

2.    Main actual issues and management plan goals


The below plan will enable to preserve dolphins from the main actual issues which are:
1.     Wrong touristic approaches & behaviours towards dolphins (from zodiacs/day boats)
2.     The excessive number of swimming visitors around dolphins
3.     The dolphins’ habitat and lagoon ecosystem from pollution (both from noise from zodiacs/day boats, and from liquid sewages such as gas/oil, boats’ used waters, and garbage flying off from boats such as plastics, aluminium etc.).
By implementing such plan, the quality of the touristic experience around dolphins will be restored while becoming eco-friendly for dolphins and the lagoon ecosystem. 


3.    The management plan

3.1         Defining Sataya Lagoon as a Motor Boat Free zone


Only canoes/kayaks/paddle boards, swimmers and divers are allowed inside the lagoon.

Goal
This is a simple yet highly effective solution to put an end to all the wrong approaches and behaviors from boats (zodiacs & big boats) that negatively impact dolphins, such as dolphins purchasing and harassment, which form one of the two major issues for the dolphins as observed at Sha’ab Sataya.[1]
This also enables to solve the issue of pollution for both dolphins and the lagoon ecosystem (whether noise pollution or liquid sewage and solid waste type of pollution).

Means
-        All big boats (day boats & liveaboards) can use the existing anchorages which are located outside of the lagoon, on the reefs close to the entrances.
-        For safety, all visitors shall have a life jacket onboard the kayaks/canoes: either worn or tied up to the kayak/canoe. Given that all boats already have an obligation to have a lifejacket for all visitors, doing so incurs no additional cost for touristic operators. (Taking a hat/cap and water shall be highly recommended to visitors)
-        Each group of 10 or 12 visitors onboard kayaks/canoes entering the lagoon shall be accompanied by a guide on a canoe/kayak too. Today there is already a minimum of one pilot on each zodiac for 10 to 12 visitors max, so this is the same ratio. This incurs no costs or change for touristic operators. The guide will hold the visitors’ canoes and supervise the swim for safety in the same way zodiac pilots do today. Of course, there may be a second guide accompanying the visitors that will get in the water to lead the swim or snorkel as this is already often the case today.
-       The guide will have a talky-walky with him for emergencies (ie, to call in a zodiac/boat in case of emergency).

 Note: Approximate paddling time from the lagoon entrances to the dolphins most visited zones is about 15 to 20 minutes based on the exact location of the pod.



3.2         Limiting the number of visitors at Sataya and inside the lagoon

Goal
The second main issue now observed at Sataya both for dolphins and for visitors themselves is the excessive number of visitors (too many zodiacs and too many swimmers). This creates an excessive stress for dolphins. It also ruins the authenticity of the site and creates an unpleasant dolphin swim as visitors keep bumping into one another among the crowd when swimming to see the dolphins. This can be avoided by spreading and limiting the overall number of visitors at once at Sataya and around the dolphins.

Means
A better spread of tourism at Sataya: diving cruise boats shall only be authorized to come to Sataya outside of day boats’ presence. This has the advantage to also limit the total number of anchorages required and therefore avoids having to create new ones.

Also, the total number of boats/visitors shall be limited as follow so that no more than 100 visitors are at Sataya at the same time (which is in line with the greater possible dolphin pod size that can be onsite):
·       4 liveaboard dolphin cruises max at a time, ie per week. (+-80 visitors)
·       1 liveaboard diving cruise at a time (+- 20 visitors), but with 2 different possible schedules per day: either from after 3pm until sunrise or from sunrise and up to 10.30am. This enable 14 liveaboard diving cruise boats to come to Sataya per week.
Ä  The local maritime authorities can handle a planning for dolphin cruise (4 availabilities per week) and for diving cruises (2 schedules per day available), and register bookings from touristic operators so as to limit the authorization granted according to availabilities.
·        For day boats, it is best to limit visitors to 100
Ä  This can be managed by the local maritime authorities via a limited number of tickets sold (as is already done at Samadhi).
By doing so, visitors wishing to visit Sataya and the dolphins will naturally better spread over the days and weeks.


3.3         Limiting the number of visitors around/with dolphins:

First, visitors shall be allowed to approach dolphins according to 2 time schedules:
·       From 10.30am to 1pm: only day boats’ visitors can approach and swim with dolphins. So this is 100 visitors max given the above tickets limitation set.
·       From 3pm to the next day 10.30am: only dolphin cruise and diving cruise visitors can approach and swim with dolphins. So this is also 100 visitors max too given the above boats limitation set.
And therefore, between 1pm and 3pm no one is allowed to approach dolphins closer than 30 meters which creates a daily resting time for them. They are very often observed sleeping or resting at this time so it is a perfect time to allow them some peace away from humans.
Note: A day off for dolphins could be set per week. Dolphin watching on canoes/kayaks is allowed only from a minimum of 30 meters from dolphins. Approaching closer and/or swimming with dolphins would be forbidden.

Secondly, there shall be an equal Human-dolphin ratio rule.
There shall never be more humans than dolphins within 30 meters of the dolphins. This way, if the dolphin pod is at his maximum, ie, around 100 dolphins, all visitors allowed in the time schedule as set above can swim with them (as there is always a maximum of 100 visitors per schedule with above organization) but if the dolphin pod is smaller or spread in smaller pods, visitors have to adjust and if necessary swim in turns with them.
Guides accompanying visitors all having a talky-walky can thus easily talk to one another and organize for their groups to go in turns, and to go snorkeling on a reef close by while waiting for their turn or afterwards, based on the size of the pod(s).
There are enough coral reefs or potatoes or the coral garden, turtles, rays etc. to have a nice snorkeling in the lagoon. And this is also what is usually proposed by operators anyway when dolphins are absent or before or after dolphin swims.
By doing so, we avoid excessive stress for dolphins as they will never be outnumbered by swimmers. But we also restore and ensure the authenticity and the intimacy of the dolphin swim for visitors. No more pushing or bumping into one another within the crowd of swimmers for visitors. The quality of the experience proposed to tourists is thus greatly enhanced and so is its value.
To further enhance the value of such tours, it would be ideal to rename Sataya as a “Protected Wild Dolphins Sanctuary” and to highlight that all tours thanks to this new approach become eco-tourism or eco-friendly tours aimed at better preserving dolphins while maximizing the authenticity and intimacy of the encounter. Tourists value more and more such types of respectful tourism or animal eco-friendly tourism. They are ready to pay more for such type of eco-tours[2].

3.4         Dolphin swim basic behavioural rules:

A few additional rules about the approach and behavior around dolphins can be set:
·         Getting in the water from the kayaks/canoes shall be done 10 meters away from dolphins (never closer or on top of the dolphins),
·         The swimming approach shall be grouped, silent, slow and aiming at arriving on the side of dolphins (never from the back or front), but no closer than 3 meters away from a dolphin. And it shall be up to dolphins to approach closer than to 3 meters to humans.
·         No touching or feeding dolphins.
·         No fast swimming / purchasing the dolphins to try and keep up with them, this is both a source of stress for dolphins and completely useless as dolphins are way too fast compared to humans anyway.
·         Special care and longer distance to be respected for dolphin babies or females with babies.
Some hard plastic leaflets shall be created and distributed in all languages to day boats operators and diving/dolphin cruises to be passed around among visitors to ensure these simple rules are understood by all. These rules also enable to maximise the receptivity of dolphins towards humans and ensures the best possible encounter for visitors. It is in their interest and shall be highlighted as such in the leaflet. 


3.5         Environmental rules to protect the lagoon and its surrounding

·         Zodiac around Sataya shall be slow and as silent as possible
·         All motorized water sports are forbidden (waterski/buoys etc.)
·         Throwing garbage at sea shall be strictly forbidden
·         No cleaning of zodiac or big boats onsite (products used are highly polluting the reefs & waters)
·         Fishing forbidden
·         Mandatory to use special reef safe sunscreen and/or anti-UV T-shirts of shorties*
* This shall be mentioned in the advertising leaflets and websites for such tours. Reef safe sunscreen shall also be available for sale on all boats as well as a few anti-UV Tshirts. Reef safe sunscreen or Anti-UV Tshirts/shorties are available for sale on Amazon. Here is a list of such reef safe sunscreen: ThinkBaby Safe sunscreen SPF50+, Tropical Sands All Natural SPF30, Kokua Hawaiian Natural Zinc reef safe sunscreen SPF50, Manda organic sun paste, All Good organic sunscreen butter, Badger Tinted sunscreen SPF30, Babo Botanicals Clear Zinc sunscreen SPF30, Stream2sea biodegradable sunscreen tinted SPF30, Waterlover Sun Milk de Biotherm, Lait solaire UVBio, Fluide mineral Avène.
Note: Using reef safe sunscreen shall be mandatory on all Red Sea diving or touristic tours/cruises at large ideally, like it has been done in Palaus (Indonesia) or will be the case in Hawaï soon too etc.


4.    Monitoring requirements


This plan has the advantage to not require any onsite monitoring.
o    The lagoon being a motor boat free zone, it will be so obvious if a motorised boat enters the lagoon that everyone one will tell the boat to leave and/or report it.
o    As for whether some boats come to Sataya not according to the plannings, ie, without permission, a few regular radio calls from the authorities to any boat onsite to check which boats are there will be enough.
o    For day boats, if visitors’ tickets are being checked at departure, there is no need for monitoring. If not, regular random checks can be done at departure or at port return.
o    As per the respect of the equal human-dolphin ratio within 30 meters of dolphins, some punctual day tours visitors’ interviews when back to port can be done for example. We also highly suggest to insert a reporting authority email contact within the hard plastic leaflet created in all languages to be distributed onboard to visitors by all touristic operators. This will allow visitors and local/foreign/ operators to report anything wrong in that respect or others. That will be of great help to protect the sanctuary and dolphins.


5.    Enforcement requirement


It is very important to demonstrate to all operators the benefits for them and for their visitors of such new plan so as for them to voluntarily apply and respect it.
However, strong enforcement measures shall be designed in the following cases so as to deter operators from even trying to infringe them:
-        Diving Cruise and Dolphin Cruise being at Sataya not according to plannings (whether with no permission or at a wrong time schedule)
-        Day boats having more visitors than tickets
-        Motorized boat entering the lagoon (except for emergency)
-        Dolphin approach/swim outside of authorized time schedule
-        Equal Human-dolphin ratio not respected within 30 meters of dolphins
-        Dolphin swim behaviours rules infringement
-        Environmental rules infringement


6.    Investment required

6.1         For touristic operators:

 Day tours and dedicated dolphin liveaboard boats can choose hard plastic kayaks/canoes (doubles or triples for 2 adults (or 2 adults + 1 child) which have an average lifespan of 12 to 15 years[3]. One double or triple average wholesale price is 150-250$ + delivery. Rough realistic estimated price for a delivered kayak with paddles: 350$ (wholesale price Chinese manufacturer see link below).
Ä  For dolphin cruise boats: 20 visitors + 3 guides = 23 persons. 12 double kayaks are required x 350$= 4200$ + 3 talky-walkies: 3x 50$= 150$. Total investment for kayaks and talky walkies: 4350$ in total.

Ä  For day-Tours boats: 30 visitors + 3 to 4 guides = 34persons. 17 double canoes required = 5950$+150$ for 3 talkies =6100$ in total.

Example of manufacturers, products, price examples:
-          www.seaflo.com

Ä  For diving cruises that will only use them for their stop over at Sataya once a week, or for diving cruise boats only punctually rented for a dolphin cruise: inflatable kayaks may be better suited as they are easy to store once folded (start from 8,5 kg for ultralights – can be folded in a bag of 60cm-30cm-30cm). Their lifespan is shorter than for rigid ones but can last 5 to 10 years with proper care. European unit consumer price: 99€ (wholesale prices shall be cheaper) for a double canoe with paddles. Some of these are already used by a few foreign dolphin cruise organizers at Sataya (Sea-dolphin.fr usually on La Vela, Dolphinesse.net etc.). Investment for a diving cruise boat: 12 double Kayaks are required for 22 visitors and 2 guides (ie, 24 persons) = 12 kayaks x100€ = 1200€. With 150€ for 3 talky-walkies, the overall investment is 1350€.

Example of manufacturer, products and prices:
-          https://www.nootica.fr/kayak-gonflable-zray-st-croix-2018.html

6.2         For the authorities:

 Only a very light and limited human time is required:
-        Organise the set-up: internal organisation, creation of the ‘Protection dolphin Sanctuary’ new management process and rules document to be sent to all operators, a meeting to be held with day tours and dolphin cruise operators, (and diving cruise operators but not compulsory) to present the new plan in advance for them to organise themselves.
-        On-going tasks: Manage the planning of availabilities and bookings for Dolphin Cruise (4 /week) and diving cruise (2 available slots /day). And limit the selling of tickets to max 100/day for day boats.
-        As for monitoring, a few regular random checks via radio or at port only are required.

7.    Implementation steps and timing 


The new management rules shall come in application, outside of the Sataya peak season. This way the authorities and operators can get used to it before the peak season.
·        Internal authority organisation shall be ready around 9 months ahead of the plan application start date.  :
o   Plannings set up and ongoing management process for dolphin and scuba cruises and for the ticket selling to day boats,
o   Enforcement rules definition (what consequences for operators if planning and rules are not respected),
o   A new official document containing the new plan, process and enforcement information for all tour operators,
o   Hard plastic leaflets aimed at visitors presenting the sanctuary, dolphins approach & swim rules and environmental rules in all languages to be distributed to all touristic operators and boats for them to pass it around on their boat for visitors to read. A reporting email contact shall be mentioned in it for tourists to be able to report any wrong situation and help protect dolphins and the sanctuary as defined earlier in the monitoring section.


·          Then 9 months ahead of the plan application start date:

o   Holding a meeting with day-boats and dolphin cruise operators for which the investment is the highest would be ideal to inform about the new management plan and organisation. The objective is to present:
§  The benefits for their business of such new eco-friendly tourism. It enables to secure the wellness and long term presence of dolphins in the lagoon and therefore their business. Secondly, informing them that animal eco-friendly tourism in such Protected Sanctuary is perceived of a higher value by tourists is important[4] for them to understand that their investment can be quickly reimbursed by a higher touristic price for example. Explaining that such organisation also enables a better spread of tourists and therefore of their activity over days and weeks and months is important. The official document about the new plan can be handled to each of them at this occasion.
§  Finally, it gives them plenty of time to organise the financing, to buy and get the delivery of canoes/kayaks. Operators may also wish to group their orders of kayaks to obtain a better wholesale price. This also allows plenty of time to modify their leaflets to rename the tours ‘Ecofriendly dolphin swim tour within the Sataya Protected Dolphin Sanctuary’, modify the tour information and prices, and to distribute them in hotels for advertising etc.
§  To start managing their bookings according the plannings’ availability and authorisation when approaching the kick off date of the plan application.

o   Informing all other diving tours operators (invited at the meeting too) about the new management plan and organisation by sending the official document. Their financial investments being low and dolphins just being a stop-over and not their core business, their presence to a meeting is less crucial and can proposed but not mandatory.



8.    Conclusion :


With this rather simple organization both the lagoon ecosystem and the dolphins will be better protected while enhancing the quality and value of the dolphin swim experience for visitors4. It is thus a win-win situation for all. Also, as the demand for more respectful, ecological, eco-friendly travels and tours expands fast among western tourists, far from limiting tourism or business, this new organization will enhance the appeal for such tours and therefore attract more tourism locally while enabling to better spread tourism over the days and weeks year-round.
Finally, aside benefiting dolphins and tourism, being composed of easy simple rules, a low cost and easy implementation, as well as an extremely low monitoring need, all key factors are met to ensure success of such plan.

Valérie VALTON
Dolphinesse
Based in Paris, France.
Human-cetacean Interaction & Management Specialist
Specialty Degree in Ethology and Human-Animal Mediation (University of Paris Descartes, Paris)
MBA in International Business (University of Western Sydney, Australia)
Master in International Business (ESC Rennes Business School, France)

Correspondence should be addressed to:
Valérie VALTON – 10 rue des artistes - 75014 Paris France
Tel: + 33 6 63 00 43 52



[1] Onsite observations made by the author of the dolphins and touristic practices at Sataya over the last 6 years (each year for one week during one week either in June, July or August)

2 “Research studies continue to show that travellers prefer companies that embed green or eco-friendly practices into their operations. The percentage of consumers who are willing to pay more for sustainable brands that showed commitment to social and environmental values went up from 55% to 66% between 2014 and 2015. https://www.responsibletravel.org/whatWe[2][2]Do/The_Case_for_Responsible_Travel_2016_Final.pdf

[3] https://www.secumar.com/en/faq/what-is-the-life-expectancy-of-a-kayak-2/
[4] Please see the full report from the author which demonstrates the higher economic and touristic value of eco-tourism. “Research studies continue to show that travellers prefer companies that embed green or eco-friendly practices into their operations. The percentage of consumers who are willing to pay more for sustainable brands that showed commitment to social and environmental values went up from 55% to 66% between 2014 and 2015. https://www.responsibletravel.org/whatWe[4][4]Do/The_Case_for_Responsible_Travel_2016_Final.pdf
 

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